Veterinary Compounding



Future directions in training of veterinarians for small exotic mammal medicine: expectations, potential, opportunities, and mandates.
Rosenthal K.
Small exotic mammals have been companions to people for almost as long as dogs and cats have been. The challenge for veterinary medicine today is to decipher the tea leaves and determine whether small mammals are fad or transient pets or whether they will still be popular in 20 years. This article focuses on pet small-mammal medicine, as the concerns of the laboratory animal are better known and may differ profoundly from those of a pet. Dozens of species of small exotic mammals are kept as pets. These pet small-mammal species have historically served human purposes other than companionship: for hunting, for their pelts, or for meat. Now, they are common pets. At present, most veterinary schools lack courses in the medical care of these animals. Veterinary students need at least one required class to introduce them to these pets. Currently, there are no small-mammal-only residency programs. This does not correspond with current needs. The only way to judge current needs is by assessing what employers are looking for. In a recent JAVMA classified section, almost 30% of small-animal practices in suburban/urban areas were hiring veterinarians with knowledge of exotic pets. All veterinarians must recognize that pet exotic small mammals have changed the landscape of small-animal medicine. It is a reality that, today, many small-animal practices see pet exotic small mammals on a daily basis.
PMID: 17035210 [PubMed - in process] See Article Here

Ronidazole in the Treatment of Trichomonad Infections in Cats
Davidson Gigi S
Issue: Nov/Dec 2006 - Veterinary Compounding

Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a microscopic single-celled flagellated protozoan parasite, traditionally identified as a cause of reproductive disease in cattle, has been demonstrated as an important cause of diarrhea in cats. Until recently, an effective antimicrobial treatment for feline Tritrichomonas foetus had not been identified. Since recommended dosages of antimicrobial drugs have failed in cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and in vitro studies have revealed multiple drug resistance, investigations continue in the effort to find an effective treatment. One particular study by Dr. Jody Gookin noted no clinicopathological abnormalities or adverse effects with the use of ronidazole, and the research concluded that ronidazole administered at 30 to 50 mg/kg orally twice daily for 2 weeks was capable of resolving diarrhea and eradicating infections of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats. Clinical use of ronidazole has revealed a reversible, possibly dose-related, neurotoxicity. Cats receiving ronidazole should be

Application of Sildenafil for Pulmonary Hypertension in Canines and Foals
Davidson Gigi S
Issue: Nov/Dec 2006 - Veterinary Compounding

Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is the most commonly recognized form of pulmonary hypertension in canines. Persistent pulmonary hypertension is a life-threatening condition in neonatal foals. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension in both canines and neonatal foals has focused on the correction of hypoxia and acidosis, not on the pulmonary hypertension itself. Identification of pulmonary hypertension in canines and foals has been made easier with the new diagnostic technologies that are being employed by veterinarians. Although retrospective reviews and studies have been published on the use of sildafenil, which is used primarily for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction, to treat pulmonary hypertension in human neonates, and the pharmacodynamics of sildenafil have been examined in various species, sildenafil has not been used widely in dogs or foals. Therefore, the adverse effects of sildafenil in canines and foals have not been determined. Until the stability of sildenafil in suspension has been determined

Compounding for Veterinary Medicine
Fields Shannon W
Issue: Nov/Dec 2006 - Veterinary Compounding

Abstract: As challenging as it can sometimes be to determine appropriate forms of medicines that assure compliance by humans, doing so for veterinary patients is even more challenging. Most human patients can communicate their preferences and tolerances; for example, those with swallowing problems can report their difficulties with oral dosage forms, and most children react unmistakably to unpalatable flavors or the prospect of an injection. Animal patients, however, must communicate by way of their behavioral reactions to a dosage form, as their verbalization capabilities are limited to their species. Dosing veterinary patients requires imagination and ingenuity from a compounding pharmacist. This brief summary, along with the featured case report, examines some of the challenges that veterinary compounding pharmacists face.

Update on Transdermals for Animal Patients 
Davidson Gigi S
Issue: May/Jun 2005 - Veterinary Compounding

Abstract: Much insight has been gained into the disposition of transdermally administered medications to animal patients over the last 2 years. Scientific investigations are beginning to unravel the mystery of percutaneous drug disposition of transdermally applied drugs. While exact disease-specific protocols for transdermal drug therapy are yet to be determined, pulsed transdermal drug delivery in feline patients still offers much hope for life-saving, noninvasive therapeutic intervention. While the regulatory and scientific environments are still developing on the subject of pulsed transdermal therapy, this dosage form still represents one of the most promising therapeutic tools in the veterinarian’s “black bag.” By keeping pace with the results of scientific investigations in veterinary transdermal therapy and by practicing due diligence in chronicling transdermal therapeutic outcomes, the compounding pharmacist can maximally contribute to the veterinary care quadrad.

Compounding for Behavior Problems in Animals
Vail Jane, Davidson Gigi S
Issue: May/Jun 2005 - Veterinary Compounding

Abstract: At best, a behavior disorder in a companion animal is a minor inconvenience for the owner. At worst, such problems lead to the surrender or euthanasia of a once-loved pet. Today, however, veterinary pharmacology offers new, safe, and effective therapies for the treatment of anxiety, aggression, and fear in dogs, cats, birds, and exotic pets. Used in addition to behavior modification and changes in the pet’s environment, those medications increase the likelihood of therapeutic success.