Sports Medicine References
Hemorrhoids are particularly problematic for catchers, coaches, and others who are regularly in a squatting position. Treatment often involves use of a novel dosage form known as the ""Rectal Rocket" a suppository that permits simultaneous internal and external application of anti-inflammatories, anesthetics, antibiotics, or other medications.

KetoprofenGel as an Adjunct to Physical Therapist Management of a Child With Sever Disease

Ketorolac Use in the National Football League Prevalence, Efficacy, and Adverse Effects

Development and evaluation of nasal formulations of ketorolac.

Clinician practices for the management of amenorrhea in the adolescent and young adult athlete.

The female athlete triad: an emerging role for physical therapy.

Effective osteoporosis education in the outpatient orthopaedic setting.

Effects of oral contraceptives on body composition and physical performance in female athletes.

Oral contraceptives improve endothelial function in amenorrheic athletes.

Exercise-induced endocrine pathologies.

Treatment of reduced bone mineral density in athletic amenorrhea: a pilot study.

A physician survey of therapy for exercise-associated amenorrhea: a brief report.

Sports-related knee injuries in female athletes: what gives?

American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.

A review of the female athlete triad (amenorrhea, osteoporosis and disordered eating).

The female athlete triad: an emerging role for physical therapy.

Neuromuscular and hormonal factors associated with knee injuries in female athletes. Strategies for intervention.

Sex hormones and knee ligament injuries in female athletes.

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the female athlete. Potential risk factors.


Medical Concerns in the Female Athlete;106/3/610

Effects of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injury risk:
a systematic review.

Recombinant Human Leptin in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

Reproductive hormone effects on strength of the rat anterior cruciate ligament.

The correlations between estradiol, estrone, estriol, progesterone, and sex
hormone-binding globulin and anterior cruciate ligament stiffness in healthy,
active females.

Knee ligament mechanical properties are not influenced by estrogen or its receptors.

The effect of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injuries in
women as determined by hormone levels.

Stress fractures in athletes. How to spot this under diagnosed injury.

Topical treatment of blunt-impact soft tissue injuries

Topical ketoprofen TDS patch versus diclofenac gel: efficacy and tolerability in
benign sport related soft-tissue injuries.

Comparison of ketoprofen, piroxicam, and diclofenac gels in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury in general practice. General Practice Study Group.

Efficacy of transdermal ketoprofen for delayed onset muscle soreness.

Sclerosing polidocanol injections in chronic painful tennis elbow-promising results in a pilot study.

Sclerosing polidocanol injections to treat chronic painful shoulder impingement syndrome-results of a two-centre collaborative pilot study.

Levorphanol, Methadone, and the Management of Intractable Chronic Pain: An Interview with Kerry Schmidt, BA, MBA; Jack P. McNulty, MD, FACP; and George B. Muller, RPh
Author(s): Vail Jane Issue:
Jan/Feb 2006 - Sports Medicine

Abstract:   For former National Football League player Kerry Schmidt, BA, MBA, chronic pain is a part of everyday life. To repair sports-related trauma sustained during his 6-year career as a defensive back, Schmidt has undergone 24 major orthopedic surgeries over the past three decades and will undergo two or three additional procedures to repair his lower back. Now a sports reporter, a syndicated sports columnist, and a business owner, Schmidt says his pain at times has rated as 10-plus on a 10-point pain scale. Schmidt recently took control of his constant discomfort. After he consulted with Jack P. McNulty, MD, FACP, a specialist in the management of chronic pain, who collaborated with George B. Muller, RPh, a compounding pharmacist, Schmidt found relief with no adverse effects from the seldom-prescribed drug levorphanol.

Transdermal Administration of Anti-inflammatory Medications in Sports Injuries: Use of Iontophoresis and Phonophoresis to Enhance Delivery
Author(s): Heim Bob
Issue: Jan/Feb 2006 - Sports Medicine

Abstract:  Transdermal delivery of anti-inflammatory medications, both nonsteroidal and corticosteroids, has enjoyed at least a decade of success in Canada and the US. Iontophoresis and phonophoresis offer substantial benefits for the transdermal delivery of these medications and can be valuable additions to existing treatment modalities for minor sports-related injuries. Included with this article is historical and explanatory information about iontophoresis and phonophoresis, as well as formulations and case reports related to the treatment of sports-related injuries. The article emphasizes the importance of a compounding pharmacist’s involvement in developing a successful treatment plan.

Compounding for Sports Medicine
Author(s): Vail Jane
Issue: Nov/Dec 2004 – Endotoxin

Abstract:  Today’s compounding pharmacists offer new therapies that can minimize tissue damage from sports injuries and ensure a rapid return to fitness. Some formulations can be used before exercise or competition to ready the body for increased physical stress. Others can be applied shortly after injury to enhance healing. Sports injuries fall into one of two types: acute injuries caused by traumatic contact during competition, and chronic injuries caused by repetitive stress and/or improper style. Examples of treatments for these injuries are ketoprofen 10%, 15%, or 20% in Pluronic lecithin organogel to treat sprains, strains, and inflammation; dexamethasone 0.4% in an aqueous solution for iontophoresis to treat sprains, strains, and inflammation; acetic acid 2% or 4% in an aqueous solution administered by iontophoresis to reduce scar tissue; baclofen 5%, lidocaine 10%, and guaifenesin 10% or 20% in Pluronic lecithin organogel to prevent muscle cramps; lidocaine 4%, epinephrine 0.05%, and tetracaine 0.5% in a spray or hydroxyethylcellulose gel to treat cuts and abrasions; and muscle relaxant guaifenesin (10% or 20%) or cyclobenzaprine (0.5%, 1%, or 2%) in Pluronic lecithin organogel to treat muscle strain. These customized preparations are not commercially available.

Case Reports for Arthritis Issue: Iontophoresis with Lidocaine and Dexamethasone for Treating Rotator Cuff Injury in a Hockey Player
Author(s): Preckshot John Issue:
Nov/Dec 1999 - Compounding for Arthritis Patients

Abstract:  This reports the results of a successful treatment using iontophoresis of a rotator-cuff injury sustained by a professional hockey player. The treatment consisted of an aggressive protocol, which resulted in the player’s returning to active status in 13 days with no restriction of ability or complaints of pain or discomfort. Therapy involved lidocaine hydrochloride solution and dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution (beginning with a solution that was strengthened the fifth day after the injury, when a topical Pluronic lecithin organogel consisting of 10% lidocaine and 5% ketoprofen applied four times daily was added). The milliamp push was also raised with the iontophoresis. The physical therapist who treated the patient felt that the more aggressive iontophoresis protocol, along with the ketamine in Pluronic lecithin organogel, figured significantly in the return of this player to active status.