Partners In Care has prepared several different opioid (e.g. Hydromorphone and Morphine) nasal sprays in various strengths to abort acute migraine pain. For break-through pain in palliative care, the morning nasal dosing provides fast acting non-invasive dosage form. The patients and their physicians have found these preparations to be fast acting and very effective.
Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single-dose intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers.
A multiple-dose phase I study of intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers.